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Wetlands

Shrub Swamps and Shrub Riparian

Riparian wetland, John Day River, Wheeler County

Shrub swamps and shrub riparian
John Day River, Wheeler County
(John A. Christy, Oregon Biodiversity Information Center)

Shrub swamps and shrub riparian (see also Alkaline wetlands and Fens) occur along rivers and streams throughout the state and are often intermixed with upland portions of floodplains in a jumble of units that are difficult or impossible to map separately. Shrub swamps and shrub riparian are usually associated with seasonal flooding by streams and rivers along which they occur, but they may also be hydrated by perennial or seasonal seepage, tributary streams, or flooding caused by tidal cycles. Vegetation may be forested, scrub-shrub, or herbaceous, but is usually a mixture of alternating patches of all three different types. Historically, most riparian areas were grazed intensively by livestock, and severely degraded by soil compaction, denudation, downcutting of streams, and subsequent invasion by upland or exotic species. These impacts also degraded streams and caused problems for fish and other aquatic species. Over the last 20 years, extensive areas of riparian vegetation and hydrology have been restored by improved management practices.

Riparian Wetlands Map

Shrub swamps and shrub riparian map



Habitat: Edges of rivers, streams, lakes, and ponds; edges and interiors of peatlands; slopes, basins, and flats
Water regime: Perennially to seasonally flooded
Water chemistry: Fresh

Ecoregion*: BM = Blue Mountains, BR = Northern Basin and Range, CB = Columbia Basin, CR = Coast Range, EC = East Cascades, KM = Klamath Mountains, WC = West Cascades, WV = Willamette Valley  
  Scientific & Common Name Global & State Rank Ecoregion*
wetland type image Alnus incana / Athyrium filix-femina Wet Shrubland
Mountain alder / lady fern (Crowe et al. 2004: 201; NS)
G3S2 BM
wetland type image Alnus incana / Calamagrostis canadensis Wet Shrubland
Mountain alder / bluejoint reedgrass (Crowe et al. 2004: 198; NS)
G3S3 BM
wetland type image Alnus incana / Carex (aquatilis, kelloggii, luzulina, pellita) Shrubland
Mountain alder / sedge (Crowe et al. 2004: 197, 199; NS)
G3S3 BM
wetland type image Alnus incana / Cornus sericea Shrubland
Mountain alder / creek dogwood riparian
G3S3 BM, BR, EC
wetland type image Alnus incana / Equisetum arvense Wet Shrubland
Mountain alder / common horsetail (Crowe et al. 2004: 204; Wells 2006: 104; NS)
G3S3 BM
wetland type image Alnus incana / Glyceria striata Wet Shrubland
Mountain alder / fowl mannagrass (Crowe et al. 2004: 206; McCain et al. 2014: 62; Wells 2006: 104; NS)
G3S3 BM
wetland type image Alnus incana / mesic forbs Wet Shrubland
Mountain alder / mesic forbs (Murray 2000: 30; Christy 2004: 36; Crowe et al. 2004: 209, 210; Odion et al. 2013: 95; NS)
G3S3 BM
wetland type image Alnus incana / Ribes (inerme, hudsonianum, lacustre) Shrubland
Mountain alder / currant (white-stem gooseberry, stinking currant, swamp gooseberry)
G3S2 BM, EC
wetland type image Alnus incana / Scirpus microcarpus Wet Shrubland
Mountain alder / smallfruited bulrush (Crowe et al. 2004: 195; NS)
G3SS BM, CB, EC
wetland type image Alnus incana / Spiraea douglasii Wet Shrubland
Mountain alder / Douglas spiraea (Crowe et al. 2004: 212; NS)
G3S2 BM, EC
wetland type image Alnus incana / Symphoricarpos albus Wet Shrubland
Mountain alder - snowberry (Crowe et al. 2004: 220; Wells 2006: 105)
G3S2 BM, EC
wetland type image Alnus incana - Betula occidentalis Shrubland
Mountain alder-water birch
G2S1 BM, BR
wetland type image Alnus rhombifolia / Betula occidentalis Forest
White alder / water birch
G1S1 BM, BR, CP
wetland type image Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata / Acer circinatum Shrub Swamp
Sitka alder / vine maple (NS)
G4S3 WC
wetland type image Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata / Athyrium filix-femina - Cinna latifolia Shrubland
Sitka alder/lady fern shrub - slender woodreed
G4S4 BM
wetland type image Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata / Oplopanax horridus Shrub Swamp
Sitka alder / devils club (NS)
G4S4 BM, WC
wetland type image Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata / Rubus (lasiococcus, parviflorus) Wet Shrubland
Sitka Alder / (dwarf bramble, thimbleberry) (NS)
G4S4 BM
wetland type image Cornus sericea - Salix (hookeriana, sitchensis) Shrub Swamp
Creek dogwood - (Hooker willow, Sitka willow) (NS)
G3S3 CR, WV
wetland type image Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda / Deschampsia caespitosa  Wet Shrubland
Shrubby cinquefoil / tufted hairgrass (Crowe et al. 2004: 229, 271; Wells 2006: 96; NS)
G4S2 BM
wetland type image Kalmia microphylla / Carex nigricans Wet Dwarf-shrubland
Small-leaved bog laurel / black alpine sedge (Crowe et al. 2004: 264; Wells 2006: 92; NS)
G3S2 BM, BR
wetland type image Kalmia microphylla / Carex scopulorum Wet Dwarf-shrubland
Bog laurel / mountain sedge (NS)
G3S3 BM
wetland type image Malus fusca Shrub Swamp
Oregon crabapple shrub-swamp (Christy 2004: 49; NS)
G3S3 CR, WV
wetland type image Ribes lacustre - Ribes hudsonianum / Cinna latifolia Wet Shrubland
Prickly currant - black currant / slender woodreed (Crowe et al. 2004: 189; NS)
G2S2 BM
wetland type image Ribes lacustre - Ribes hudsonianum / Glyceria striata Wet Shrubland
Prickly currant - black currant / fowl mannagrass (Crowe et al. 2004: 191; NS)
G2S2 BM
wetland type image Rosa nutkana / Oenanthe sarmentosa Shrubland [Provisional]
Nootka rose / water parsley shrub swamp
G2S2 WV
wetland type image Salix amygdaloides - Salix exigua Riparian Woodland
Peachleaf willow - narrow-leaved willow (NS)
G1S1 CB, BM
wetland type image Salix boothii / Calamagrostis canadensis Wet Shrubland
Booth willow / bluejoint reedgrass (Crowe et al. 2004: 256; Wells 2006: 84; NS)
G3S3 BM
wetland type image Salix boothii / Carex utriculata Wet Shrubland
Booth willow / southern beaked sedge (Crowe et al. 2004: 273; NS)
G4S3 BM, EC
wetland type image Salix boothii / mesic forbs Wet Shrubland
Booth willow / mesic forbs (Wells 2006: 82; NS)
G3S3 BM, EC
wetland type image Salix (boothii, geyeriana) / Carex aquatilis Wet Shrubland
(Booth willow, Geyer willow) / aquatic sedge (Crowe et al. 2004: 279; NS)
G3S3 BM, EC
wetland type image Salix boothii - Salix eastwoodiae / Carex nigricans Wet Shrubland
Booth willow - mountain willow / black alpine sedge (Crowe et al. 2004: 258; NS)
G3S2 BM, EC
wetland type image Salix boothii - Salix geyeriana / Carex angustata Wet Shrubland
Booth willow - Geyer willow / widefruit sedge (Crowe et al. 2004: 282; NS)
G2S2 EC
wetland type image Salix boothii - Salix lemmonii Wet Shrubland
Booth willow - Lemmon willow (Crowe et al. 2004: 289; NS)
G3S2 EC, BM
wetland type image Salix commutata / Carex scopulorum Wet Shrubland
Undergreen willow / mountain sedge (Christy 2004: 51; Crowe et al. 2004: 251; Wells 2006: 80; NS)
G3S3 BM, EC
wetland type image Salix drummondiana / Carex scopulorum Wet Shrubland
Drummond willow / mountain sedge (Wells 2006: 90; NS)
G2S2 BM
wetland type image Salix drummondiana / mesic forbs Wet Shrubland
Drummond willow / mesic forbs (NS)
G4S1 BM, BR
wetland type image Salix eriocephala - Salix exigua Shrubland [Provisional]
Rigid willow - narrow-leaved willow
G3S2 BM, BR
wetland type image Salix exigua - Salix lucida ssp. caudata Shrubland
Coyote willow - greenleaf willow
G2S2 BM, BR, CP, EC
wetland type image Salix exigua / gravel bar Wet Shrubland
Narrow-leaved willow / gravel bar (Crowe et al. 2004: 291; Wells 2006: 86; NS)
G5S4 BM, BR, CB, EC
wetland type image Salix exigua / Equisetum arvense Wet Shrubland
Coyote willow / common horsetail (Crowe et al. 2004: 293; NS)
G3S2 BM, BR, CB, EC
wetland type image Salix geyeriana / Calamagrostis canadensis Wet Shrubland
Geyer willow / bluejoint reedgrass (Crowe et al. 2004: 272; NS)
G5S3 BM, EC
wetland type image Salix geyeriana / Carex utriculata Wet Shrubland
Geyer willow / southern beaked sedge (Crowe et al. 2004: 273; NS)
G5S3 BM, EC
wetland type image Salix geyeriana / mesic forbs Wet Shrubland
Geyer willow / mesic forbs (NS)
G3S3 BM, EC
wetland type image Salix geyeriana - Salix eriocephala Shrubland
Geyer willow - rigid willow (NS)
G3S1 BR, CB
wetland type image Salix geyeriana - Salix hookeriana Wet Shrubland
Geyer willow - Hooker willow (NS)
G1S1 CR, WV
wetland type image Salix geyeriana - Salix lemmonii / Carex aquatilis var. dives Wet Shrubland
Geyer willow - Lemmon willow / Sitka sedge (Murray 2000: 35; Crowe et al. 2004: 276; NS)
G3S2 EC
wetland type image Salix (hookeriana, sitchensis) - Spiraea douglasii Wet Shrubland
(Hooker willow, Sitka willow) - Douglas spiraea (Christy 2004: 53; NS)
G3S3 CR, WV
wetland type image Salix hookeriana - (Malus fusca) / Carex obnupta - Lysichiton americanus Wet Shrubland
Hooker willow - (Oregon crabapple) / slough sedge - skunk cabbage (Christy 2004: 54; NS)
G3S3 CR
wetland type image Salix hookeriana - Myrica californica Wet Shrubland
Hooker willow - Pacific waxmyrtle (NS)
G4S4 CR
wetland type image Salix lutea / Carex utriculata Wet Shrubland
Rigid willow / beaked sedge (NS)
G4S2 BM
wetland type image Salix (melanopsis, sitchensis) Cobble Bar Shrubland
(Dusky willow, Sitka willow) (Crowe et al. 2004: 247; NS)
G3S3 BM
wetland type image Salix melanopsis Shrubland
Dusky willow
G3S2 BM, BR
wetland type image Salix sitchensis Wet Shrubland
Sitka willow (NS)
G4S4 KM, WV
wetland type image Spiraea douglasii Wet Shrubland
Douglas spiraea (Christy 2004: 58; NS)
G5S4 CR, EC, KM, WC, WV
wetland type image Spiraea douglasii / Sphagnum spp. Shrubland
Douglas spiraea / sphagnum
G3S1 WV

Authored by John A. Christy, Wetlands Ecologist, (ORBIC) Oregon Biodiversity Information Center (2012 rev. 2017)

randomness