The story of Oregon's past begins in the Lakes Basin. The oldest archaeological site in the state is Fort Rock Cave, located at the eastern edge of the Deschutes National Forest north of Silver Lake. Carbon dating of charcoal from an ancient hearth in the cave implies that people were present in Oregon more than 13,000 years ago. Along with the remains of a cook fire and chipped stone tools, archaeologists discovered a sandal made of sagebrush bark estimated to be 13,200 years old. These artifacts are thought to be the earliest evidence of human activity in Oregon, and perhaps in all of western North America.
These first Oregonians lived at the end of Pleistocene period when glaciers still covered much of the mountains in eastern Oregon, including Steens Mountain. The desert basins of southeast Oregon were filled with vast lakes that have now receded into small pockets. Today, Oregon residents know them as Summer Lake, Lake Abert, Malheur Lake, and the chain of lakes in Warner Valley. During this time, many of the animal species living today populated the area. Several species, including the giant ground sloth, giant bison, camel, and horse, are now extinct.
The passage of time is often reflected in human cultures as changes in tools and other objects. These changes are observed in the weapons of early Oregonians, particularly in spear points. The Clovis fluted point, one of the earliest types of spear points in North America, has been found at several locations in Oregon. One point, found in the Glass Buttes area in central Oregon, remarkably reflects two origins -- viewed from one face, the point is an excellent example of the Clovis type. From another angle, the point is an example of an entirely different type, called Windust. The integration of both these types in one point suggests that the two technologies overlapped in both space and time, and the maker was familiar with both.
Archaeologists have been able to infer that the landscape and climate in eastern Oregon was much different than it is today. Ancient tools, animal bones, and campfires found in another important archaeological site, Connley Caves, ten miles south of Fort Rock Cave, helped scientists draw these conclusions. In the caves, a layer of ash from the cataclysmic eruption of Mount Mazama was dated to 7,000 years ago. The caldera formed by the eruption is now occupied by Crater Lake. Under this ash, archaeologists uncovered a large number of projectile points, knives, drills, and bones from food animals. These items ranged from 11,200 to 3,140 years old. The wood in the campfire was pine, a species that lives in a cooler climate. Today, the forest surrounding Connley Caves is heat-loving juniper. The bones found in the cave were from a small, rabbit-like mammal called a pika, which today inhabits only cool, mountainous uplands. Bones of waterbirds were also present, suggesting that Paulina Marsh, which exists today several miles from the cave, must have once been much more extensive. Overall, these artifacts suggest that that the climate in eastern Oregon was once much cooler and wetter than it is today.
Many archaeological projects have been completed within the Lakes Basin, and many are ongoing. For more information about archaeology in the Lakes Basin, visit these sites:
- State of Oregon Archaeological Services
- Oregon Archaeological Service's links to information about archaeology in Oregon
- Oregon Archaeological Society
- Northern Great Basin Prehistory Project
- Archaeology at Connley Caves
- Aikens, C.M. (1986) Archaeology of Oregon, 2nd ed. Bureau of Land Management.
- Cressman, L. (1981) The Sandal and the Cave: The Indians of Oregon. Oregon State University Press: Corvallis, OR.