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Glossary of Wetlands Terms

ACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

ACEC Area of Critical Environmental Concern (USDI Bureau of Land Management).

AHP Access and Habitat Program (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife).

Attribute A label or other data element in GIS dataset.

Base Imagery Orthorectified imagery used as a base map to overlay wetland data.

BLM USDI Bureau of Land Management.

CIR Color Infrared Photography. Very useful for wetland mapping because CIR photos consistently display surface water or wet soil conditions with a darker signature.

Cowardin Cowardin Wetland Classification (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). Developed in 1979, based on vegetation structure and hydroperiod. Primary classification of NWI maps.

COA Conservation Opportunity Area. Regions identified by ODFW in 2005 for their biological and ecological significance.

CRP Conservation Reserve Program (USDA Farm Service Agency).

CWA Clean Water Act (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency).

DEQ Oregon Department of Environmental Quality.

DU Ducks Unlimited.

Ecological Systems Recurring groups of biological communities found in similar physical environments and influenced by similar dynamic ecological processes. A classification unit that is readily mappable and identifiable by conservation and resource managers in the field. Oregon's wetland ecological systems are described on the ORNHIC and NatureServe Explorer websites.

EPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Feature A point, line, or polygon in a GIS dataset.

FGDC Federal Geographic Data Committee.

FGDCWMS Federal Geographic Data Committee Wetlands Mapping Standard.

CREP Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (USDA Farm Service Agency).

CRP Conservation Reserve Program (USDA Farm Service Agency).

EQIP Environmental Quality Incentives Program (USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service).

FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency. Publishes flood hazard boundary maps.

FSA USDA Farm Service Agency.

FWP Farmable Wetlands Program (USDA Farm Service Agency).

Geospatial Software Mapping software with analytical capabilities.

Geodatabase Geographic information organized into a database, designed to store, query, and manipulate geographic information and spatial data.

GNIS Geographic Names Information System. The official repository of geographic names in the United States, managed by US Geological Survey.

HGM HydroGeomorphic classification of wetlands, based on geomorphic setting, water source, and how water moves through the site. It provides indicators of wetland function and ecological significance.

HUC Hydrological Unit Code. Created by USGS to classify watersheds of the United States at a variety of spatial scales. The various levels of subdivision (""hydrologic units"") are used to identify watershed size and associated hydrologic data.

Jurisdictional Wetland A wetland that meets specific criteria to be regulated by federal and state agencies. In Oregon, jurisdictional wetlands are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Army Corps of Engineers, and the Oregon Department of State Lands. Activities that may affect these wetlands are subject to agency review and may be restricted or require permits before work may be done.

LCREP Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership.

LSW Locally Significant Wetland, as identified in a Local Wetland Inventory. Applicable only to LWI polygons.

LWI Local Wetlands Inventory (Oregon Department of State Lands). Inventories include comprehensive maps and detailed information about wetlands within urban areas. LWIsreplace NWI in urban areas, and map all wetlands at least 0.2 ha (0.5 acres) at an accuracy of approximately 25 feet on a parcel-based map. LWIs are not a substitute for a legal delineation of wetland boundaries.

Metadata Data sources, bibliographical citations, descriptions of database fields, geoprocessing steps, contacts and permissions, and other information supporting a GIS dataset.

Mitigation, Mitigation Bank See Wetland Mitigation.

Monitoring Periodic review and assessment of changes in wetland distribution, vegetation, or function.

NAIP National Agricultural Imagery Program (USDA Farm Service Agency). Digital photography available to government agencies and public. Imagery from 2009 includes CIR photography.

NatureServe Umbrella organization for Natural Heritage Programs, Conservation Data Centers, and similar organizations in Canada, the U.S., and Central America that track rare species and ecosystems with a set of standardized methodologies.

NAWCA North American Wetlands Conservation Grant Program (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service).

NHD National Hydrography Dataset (U.S. Geological Survey).

NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration).

NOAA National Oceanic and Atomospheric Administration.

NRCS USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service.

NSDI National Spatial Data Infrastructure. The effort of the FGDC to create and implement a shared data collection and maintenance resource for geospatial data sets.

NWI National Wetland Inventory (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service).

NWPL National Wetland Plant List (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers).

NWR National Wildlife Refuge (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service).

NVCS National Vegetation Classification System.

ODF Oregon Department of Forestry.

ODFW Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.

ODLCD Oregon Department of Land Conservation and Development.

ODOT Oregon Department of Transportation.

ODSL Oregon Department of State Lands.

OFWAM Oregon Freshwater Wetland Assessment Methodology (Oregon Department of State Lands). Released in 1993, revised in 1996. Replaced in 2009 by ORWAP.

OPRD Oregon Parks and Recreation Department.

ORBIC Oregon Biodiversity Information Center - Portland (Institute for Natural Resources - Oregon University System).

ORWAP Oregon Rapid Wetland Assment Protocol (Oregon Department of State Lands). Replaced OFWAM in 2009.

OWEB Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board.

OWMS Oregon Wetlands Mapping Standard.

OWRD Oregon Water Resources Department.

PFW Partners for Fish and Wildlife (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). Polygon A feature in a GIS dataset that delineates the extent of an area.

REO Regional Ecosystem Office (USDI Bureau of Land Management, USDA Forest Service).

RNA Research Natural Area (various federal agencies).

SAC Special Area of Concern. A wetland of conservation concern, requiring careful evaluation to assure minimal impacts. The wetland type is difficult to replace and/ or is rare.

Source Imagery Imagery used to interpret wetland boundaries, seasonal hydrology, the composition or structure of substrate and vegetation, degree of disturbance, etc.

Spatial Resolution Detail with which a map depicts the location and shape of a geographic feature.

SSURGO Soil Survey Geographic Database (USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service). Official soil surveys for the United States, including hydric soil designation. Digital data distributed via the Soil Data Mart.

SWI Statewide Wetlands Inventory.

TEP Tillamook Estuaries Partnership.

Tiling Artificial drainage of agricultural fields by buried clay or plastic pipes that empty into ditches, streams, or rivers.

TMU Target Mapping Unit. An estimated size class of the smallest wetland polygon that can be mapped and classified consistently at a particular scale.

TNC The Nature Conservancy.

TWC The Wetlands Conservancy.

UGB Urban Growth Boundary.

USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture.

USFS USDA Forest Service.

USFWS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

USGS U.S. Geological Survey.

Watershed Council Locally organized, voluntary, non-regulatory groups established to improve the condition of local watersheds. Landowners and other stakeholders cooperate to conserve, maintain, and monitor wetlands, streams, and water quality.

WCP Wetlands Conservation Plan administered by ODSL. These are wetland conservation plans for local jurisdictions. Wetlands are mapped at a required minimum scale of 1:2,400, with a required minimum TMU of 0.04 ha (0.10 acre). WCPs are not a substitute for a detailed delineation of wetland boundaries.

Wetland Creation Creation of new or artificial wetlands, done to mitigate for onsite or offsite impacts to wetlands, or to create wetland functions where none existed previously.

Wetland Enhancement Enhancement of existing wetland values, usually to improve specific wetland functions in order to compensate for natural processes that no longer exist.

Wetland Mitigation Creation or restoration of wetlands, done to mitigate for onsite or offsite impacts to wetlands.

Wetland Mitigation Bank A state-regulated, public or privately-owned site for wetland creation or restoration, to mitigate for wetland impacts incurred elsewhere. Developers purchase mitigation credits from the bank, and the bank creates or restores wetlands according to legal criteria established for the bank. Credits are calculated by regulatory agencies. Once all credits are sold and regulatory objectives are achieved, bank ownership is transferred to an agency or a non-profit land trust.

Wetland Restoration Restoration of original wetland hydrology, vegetation, or functions, usually at sites where wetlands existed previously, but where they have been impacted by prior or surrounding land use.

WHIP Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program (USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service).

WRP Wetlands Rerserve Program (USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service).